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ÉTATS NATIONS ET MINORITES

États nations et minorités :

quelles voies d’expression ?

 Par

 

Samim Akgönül

 

 in Serge Théophile Balima, Michel Mathien (dir.), Les médias de l’expression de la diversité culturelle en Afrique, Bruxelles, Bruylant, UNESCO, 2012, p. 65-77

 

Résumé :

L’expression de l’identité peut avoir plusieurs formes allant de la vie courante à une expression plus revendicative. Lorsqu’il s’agit des minorités, cette expression peut devenir plus compliquée en raison de la réaction de la majorité qui peut la tolérer ou encore la condamner. Ainsi, l’expression identitaire de la minorité peut passer d’une phase passive à une phase active face à des restrictions sociétales ou juridiques mais également elle peut devenir réactionnaire si l’oppression majoritaire s’intensifie. Ces trois phases d’expression sont explorées ici en s’appuyant sur des exemples concrets.

 Abstract:

The expression of identity can take many forms ranging from the everyday life to a more active expression. For the minorities, this term may become more complicated due to the reaction of the majority who can tolerate or condemn the minority expression of identity. Thus, the expression of identity of the minority can move from one passive phase to an active one in the face of societal or legal restrictions. It can also become a reactionary expression if the majority oppression intensifies. This article explores these three phases of expression based on concrete examples.

Avant d’étudier, avec quelques exemples concrets, les restrictions sociales apportées à la liberté d’expression des minorités dans les États-nations, nous voudrions clarifier certains concepts[1]. Nous notons tout d’abord qu’il n’existe pas de consensus définissant la notion de minorité.

Il va sans dire que les constructions des États-nations sont les fruits des processus de réaction à d’autres nations ou à des entités multinationales comme les empires qui les ont précédés. Ces constructions, à quelques exceptions près, reposent sur ce que l’on appelle pudiquement « l’unité de la nation », expression traduite dans la plupart des cas par l’homogénéité de la population. Les idéologues de la nation présentent une check-list d’homogénéité martelant les critères d’appartenance jusqu’à intériorisation complète de la définition de la nation. À partir de l’école primaire et durant toute la scolarité, on présente cette check-list aux étudiants[2] : unité de la langue, unité de la religion, unité d’Histoire, unité d’idéal… Néanmoins, l’application stricte de cette série de critères d’appartenance engendre un certain nombre de problèmes depuis le « siècle des nations », autrement dit le 19e siècle. Ces problèmes dans la définition de la nation concernent aussi bien les populations des États-nations que les diasporas. En dernière analyse, la définition identitaire des nations dépend du choix d’application de critères concentriques.


[1] Cet article a été préparé grâce à la participation des étudiants de Master de l’ITI-RI de l’Université de Strasbourg (2010-2011, notamment de celle de Mlle Yeliz AVCI. Nous remercions également ma collègue Anne Laure ZWILLING pour sa relecture attentive, du centre de recherche PRISME du CNRS et de l’Université de Strasbourg.

[2] Anne Marie THIESSE La création des identités nationales, Seuil, Paris, 2001, p. 14.

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Publié par le mars 27, 2012 dans News, Nouvelles Publications

 

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Ougadougou 22-27 Janvier 2011

prospérité

Marchands

Chapel

Cathédrale

Trinité

Grande mosquée

salon de beauté

 
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Publié par le janvier 31, 2011 dans voyages... voyages

 

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Diversion

La diversité de la société française dans le media

 avec

Isabelle Rigoni

Chef d’équipe Minoritymedia, MIGRENTER

Mercredi, 13 Janvier 2010

19h00-20h30

 Lieu :

Plateforme de Paris

22, Rue de Turin

75008 Paris

 
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Publié par le janvier 10, 2010 dans Manifestations scientifiques

 

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Boundaries!

CALL FOR PAPERS

Beyond Boundaries:

Media, Culture and Identity in Europe

2-3 October 2009, Bahcesehir University, Istanbul, Turkey

emcs

What is Europe according to its others? An essence, an origin, a center? Or is it nothingness, a void or chiasm? Where is Europe? In diasporic or migrant spaces? How is Europe different from the West? Can an identity be made European? Could it be Eurocentric or Euro-chiasmic? Can one leave one’s cultural frame to take on another? Can one transnationalize and/or regionalize a national identity or vice versa? Can the European Union create a single entity or a grand signifier of Europe out of multiple differences? What is the role of communication, media, and culture in such exchanges, transformations, processes and practices? Can we account for the similarities, proximities, and relations or should we focus on the differences, cleavages, and tensions?

This conference aims to explore the questions above and how such questions surface in media and cultural texts, ranging from everyday practices to media representations. The papers may deal with various meanings of Europe and its relation to non-European cultures, and how these are experienced or altered at the level of media, culture, and identity. Possible paper topics are:

Eurocentrism and its alternatives

Transnationalism and nationalisms

Global, regional, and local media and culture

Diasporic and migrant culture and identities

Gender equality and cultural diversity

Tactics and strategies of dialogue between cultures

Symbolic representations of Europe in various cultural practices

Theories of European cinema, media and culture

Challenges for European cinema, media, and cultural studies

European communication studies and strategies

The EU policies on media, communication, and culture

Confirmed Keynote Speakers (alphabetically listed):

Emine Bozkurt ( Member of the European Parliament for the PvdA ), member of the Employment and Social Affairs Committee ; member of the Committee on Women’s Rights and Gender Equality ; member of the Joint Parliamentary Committee on Turkey ; substitute member of the Culture and Education Committee ; Vice-Chair of the Diversity and Integration Network for the Socialist Group .

Prof. Angela McRobbie (University of London, Goldsmiths College, Media and Communications) author of Be Creative: Making a Living in the New Culture Industries, forthcoming (2010); Feminist Cultural Studies:  Essays on Post-Feminist Aesthetics , Literature and Popular Culture, forthcoming (2010); The Aftermath of Feminism : Gender, Culture and Social Change (2008); The Uses of Cultural Studies (2005); In the Culture Society (1999); British Fashion Design (1998).

Prof. Kevin Robins (Based in Istanbul and a visiting fellow at Goldsmiths College, University of London) author of Times of the Technoculture: From the Information Society to the Virtual Life (1999); Into the Image: Culture and Politics in the Field of Vision (1996); Spaces of Identity: Global Media, Electronic Landscapes and Cultural Boundaries (co-author, 1995).

Prof. William Uricchio (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Comparative Media Studies), author of We Europeans?: Media, Representations, Identities (2009); Media Cultures (2006); Media, Technology, Convergence (1997); Reframing Culture: the Case of the Vitagraph Quality Films (1993, co-author).

Other speakers will be announced in the coming weeks.

Please send a 300-word abstract with the name and institutional affiliation of the speaker (mailing address & email address) to emcs@bahcesehir.edu.tr

Deadline for abstracts: June 15, 2009.  

Deadline for acceptance information: June 29, 2009.

Deadline for submitting the completed papers: September 20, 2009.

Deadline for papers for conference proceedings: October 18, 2009.

 

Organizing Committee  

  • Prof. Haluk Gürgen (Bahcesehir University, Istanbul, Turkey)
  • Prof. Dieter Mersch (University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany)
  • Prof. Winfried Gerling (University of Applied Sciences Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany)
  • Assoc. Prof. Süheyla Schroeder (Bahcesehir University, Istanbul, Turkey; visiting fellow at University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany)
  • Assoc. Prof. Savas Arslan (Bahcesehir University, Istanbul, Turkey)
  • Assist. Prof. Defne Karaosmanoglu (Bahcesehir University, Istanbul, Turkey)
  • Assist. Prof. Christine Hanke (University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany; visiting fellow at Bahcesehir University, Istanbul, Turkey)  

The conference is organized by an EU funded project, “European Media and Cultural Studies and Media Awareness,” jointly run by Bahcesehir University (Istanbul, Turkey), University of Potsdam (Potsdam, Germany) and University of Applied Sciences Potsdam (Potsdam, Germany).

Please note: There is no fee for the conference registration.

The language of the conference is English.

If you have further questions about the conference, please do not hesitate to contact us. E-Mail: Aysegul Kesirli (conference assistant) Phone: +90 (212) 381 0764

 
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Publié par le juin 25, 2009 dans Calls / Appels

 

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Call for papers

Call for Papers

Islam and the Media

January 7-10, 2010

Submission Deadline: May 15, 2009

The Center for Media, Religion and Culture
School of Journalism and Mass Communication, University of
Colorado, Boulder

colorado

The events of September 11, 2001 have unleashed an unprecedented period of global re-thinking of issues in media and religion. Islam has emerged as a major focus of inquiry and debate, but the interaction between contemporary Islam and the media has rarely been addressed. This conference will thus engage a set of questions on the place of Islam within global, regional, national and local media.

If we believe the torrent of popular headlines on Islam today, it seems that only Muslim extremists are talking about their religion, pursuing a project that claims to defend it from “secularized” Western culture. From Bin Laden’s call to jihad to the angry reaction of Muslims to the Danish cartoons of the prophet Muhammad, Muslims are portrayed in the media as irrational followers of a religion adamantly out of step with modernity. In the face of this, and perhaps in order to balance their coverage of Islam, Western journalists, pundits, and others have been asking “where are the moderate Muslims?” But few true moderates have emerged. Instead, some Western media have turned to another extreme: Muslim secularists or “Muslim non-believers”–voices which deserve media attention, but which arguably stand at the opposite fringe, rather than nearer the center of how Islam is lived and understood today.

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The Power of Images

The Power of Images
German-Turkish Relation as Focus of Media Responsibility

Date: 19 February 2009, Thursday
Time: 10.00
Place: Dolapdere Campus, BS1
Our understanding of reality is mainly stamped by images spread through the media. The Turkish image in Germany as well as the German image in Turkey depends on what articles and reports are being published. Due to the impact the media has on the German-Turkish relationship, its responsibility is significant.The event’s aim is to illustrate what images the media creates of the other. What topics are reported about and how are they conveyed to the public? Where are the critical points, and what are their backgrounds? The objective is to emphasize the significance of the media’s responsibility and thus contribute to an enhanced German-Turkish understanding.

Programme

 
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Publié par le février 18, 2009 dans Manifestations scientifiques

 

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