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Archives du décembre 9, 2011

From Caliphate to Secular State

From Caliphate to Secular State

Power Struggle in the Early Turkish Republic

 Hakan Özoglu

This insightful analysis looks at the power struggles of 1920–1926, a time during which the Ottoman Empire was replaced by a secular and modernist Turkish nationalist regime.

Designated president of the newly proclaimed Republic of Turkey in 1923, Mustafa Kemal embarked upon a process of Westernization that included the promotion of a secular Turkish national identity and the adoption of the Latin alphabet for the modern Turkish language. How was the new regime able to silence its critics and consolidate its vision?

Covering a short but eventful period in Ottoman/Turkish history From Caliphate to Secular State: Power Struggle in the Early Turkish Republic focuses on three major political and judicial maneuvers to demonstrate how opposition to and within the emerging Turkish regime was addressed during those pivotal years, and how the resulting power struggle contributed to the form of the new state that arose.

The analysis begins in 1918 when the Ottoman Empire, having lost World War I, was waiting for its fate to be determined by the Allied Powers. The book examines the original intentions and vision of Mustafa Kemal (later known as Mustafa Kemal Atatürk), as well as the effects of the Kurdish uprising in 1925, which helped the new regime silence its critics. The ongoing power struggles and their consequences are examined through 1927, after which the new regime quashed any and all opposition, enabling the new Turkish Republic to emerge as a staunchly secular, modernizing Western state.

Features
• A bibliography of archival sources from the United States, Britain, the Ottoman Empire, and Turkey, as well as other primary and secondary sources in the Turkish, English, and Ottoman languages

Highlights
• Examines a crucial period in Turkish history that has always been regarded as sacred for critical analysis
• Depicts the political landscape of the early Turkish Republic in the context of a struggle for power
• Gathers and draws from primary documents from the U.S. archives that have not been utilized before on the subject of the Ottoman and Turkish Republican history

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Publié par le décembre 9, 2011 dans Nouvelles Publications

 

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Teskilat-i Esasiye 1921 Anayasasi

TEŞKİLATI ESASİYE KANUNU

1921

3. Tertip Düstur, Cilt: 1, s. 196

Ceridei Resmiye, 1-7 Şubat 1337

Kanun No:85

Madde 1- Hakimiyet bilâ kaydü şart milletindir. İdare usulü halkın mukadderatını bizzat ve bilfiil idare etmesi esasına müstenittir.

Madde 2- İcra kudreti ve teşri salahiyeti milletin yegâne ve hakiki mümessili olan Büyük Millet Meclisinde tecelli ve temerküz eder.

Madde 3- Türkiye Devleti Büyük Millet Meclisi tarafından idare olunur ve hükûmeti “Büyük Millet Meclisi Hükûmeti” ünvanını taşır.

Madde 4- Büyük Millet Meclisi vilayetler halkınca müntehap azadan mürekkeptir.

Madde 5- Büyük Millet Meclisinin intihabı iki senede bir kere icra olunur. İntihap olunan azanın azalık müddeti iki seneden ibaret olup fakat tekrar intihap olunmak caizdir. Sabık Heyet lâhik heyetin içtimaına kadar vazifeye devam eder. Yeni intihabat icrasına imkân görülmediği takdirde içtima devresinin yalnız bir sene temdidi caizdir. Büyük Millet Meclisi azasının herbiri kendini intihap eden vilayetin ayrıca vekili olmayıp umum milletin vekilidir.

Madde 6- Büyük Millet Meclisinin heyeti umumiyesi teşrinisani iptidasında davetsiz içtima eder.

Madde 7- Ahkâmı şer’iyenin tenfizi, umum kavaninin vazı, tadili, feshi, ve muahede ve sulh akti ve vatan müdafaası ilânı gibi hukuku esasiye Büyük Millet Meclisine aittir. Kavanin ve nizamat tanziminde muamelatı nasa erfak ve ihtiyacatı zamana evfak ahkamı fıkhiye ve hukukiye ile adap ve muamelat esas ittihaz kılınır. Heyeti Vekilinin vazife ve mesuliyeti kanunu mahsus ile tayin edilir.

Madde 8- Büyük Millet Meclisi, hükûmetinin inkısam eylediği devairi kanunu mahsus mucibince intihap kerdesi olan vekiller vasıtası ile idare eder. Meclis icrai hususat için vekillere veçhe tayin ve ledelhace bunları tebdil eyler.

Madde 9- Büyük Millet Meclisi Heyeti Umumiyesi tarafından intihap olunan reis bir intihap devresi zarfında Büyük Millet Meclisi Reisidir. Bu sıfatla Meclis namına imza vazına ve Heyeti Vekile mukarreatını tasdika salahiyettardır. İcra Vekilleri heyeti içlerinden birini kendilerine reis intihap ederler. Ancak Büyük Millet Meclisi Reisi vekiller heyetinin de reisi tabiisidir.

İdare

Madde 10- Türkiye coğraafi vaziyet ve iktisadi münasebet noktai nazarından vilayetlere, vilayetler kazalara münkasem olup kazalar da nahiyelerden terekküp eder.

Vilâyat

Madde 11- Vilâyet mahalli umurda manevi şahsiyeti ve muhtariyeti haizdir. Harici ve dahili siyaset, şer’i adlî ve askeri umur, beynelmilel iktisadî münasebat ve hükûmetin umumi tekâlifi ile menafii birden ziyade vilâyata, şâmil hususat müstesna olmak üzere Büyük Millet Meclisince vaz edilecek kavanin mucibince evkaf, Medaris, Maarif, Sıhhiye, İktisat, Ziraat, Nafia ve Muaveneti içtimaiye işlerinin tanzim ve idaresi vilâyet şûralarının salâhiyeti dahilindedir.

Madde 12- Vilâyet Şûraları vilâyetler halkınca müntehap azadan mürekkeptir. Vilâyet Şûralarının içtima devresi iki senedir. İçtima müddeti senede iki aydır.

Madde 13- Vilâyet Şûrası, azası meyanında icra amiri olacak bir reis ile muhtelif şuabatı idareye memur azadan teşekkül etmek üzere bir idare heyeti intihab eder, İcra salahiyeti daimi olan bu heyete aittir.

Madde 14- Vilâyette Büyük Milet Meclisinin vekili ve mümessili olmak üzere vali bulunur. Vali, Büyük Millet Meclisi hükûmeti tarafından tayin olunup vazifesi devletin umumi ve müşterek vazaifini rüyet etmektir. Vali yalnız devletin umumi vazaifile mahalli vazaif arasında tearuz vukuunda müdahale eder.

Kaza

Madde 15- Kaza yalnız idari ve inzibati cüzü olup manevi şahsiyeti haiz değildir. İdaresi Büyük Millet Meclisi hûkümeti tarafından mansup ve valinin emri altında bir kaymakama mevdudur.

Nahiye

Madde 16- Nahiye hususi hayatında muhtariyeti haiz bir manevi şahsiyettir.

Madde 17- Nahiyenin bir şûrası, bir idare heyeti ve bir de müdürü vardır.

Madde 18- Nahiye şûrası, nahiye halkınca doğrudan doğruya müntehap azadan terekküp eder.

Madde 19- İdare heyeti ve nahiye müdürü, nahiye şûrası tarafından intihap olunur.

Madde 20- Nahiye şûrası ve idare heyeti kazai, iktisadi ve mali salahiyeti haiz olup bunların derecatı kavanini mahsusa ile tayin olunur.

Madde 21- Nahiye bir veya birkaç köyden mürekkep olduğu gibi bir kasaba da bir nahiyedir.

Umumi Müfettişlik

Madde 22- Vilâyetler iktisadi ve içtimaî münasebetleri itibariyle birleştirilerek umumi müfettişlik kıtaları vücuda getirilir.

Madde 23- Umumi müfettişlik mıntakalarının umumi surette asayişinin temini ve umum devair muamelatının teftişi, umumi müfettişlik mıntakasındaki vilâyetlerin müşterek işlerinde ahengin tanzimi vazifesi Umumi müfettişlere mevdudur. Umumi müfettişler Devletin umumi vazaifile mahalli idarelere ait vazaif ve mukarreratı daimi surette murakebe ederler.

Maddei Münferide

İşbu kanun tarihi neşrinden itibaren meri olur. Ancak elyevm münakit Büyük Millet Meclisi 5 Eylül 1336 tarihli nisabı müzakere kanununun birinci maddesinde gösterildiği üzere gayesinin husulüne kadar müstemirren müçtemi bulunacağı cihetle işbu Teşkilatı Esasiye Kanunundaki 4 üncü, 5 inci, 6 ncı maddeler gayenin husulüne elyevm mevcut Büyük Millet Meclisi adedi mürettebinin sülüsanı ekseriyetle karar verildiği takdirde ancak yeni intihabdan itibaren meriyül icra olacaktır.

 
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Publié par le décembre 9, 2011 dans Manifestations scientifiques

 

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GIT INITIATIVE

GIT INITIATIVE

International Work Group

“Academic Liberty and Freedom of Research in Turkey”

www.gitinitiative.com

  www.gitfrance.fr

Contacts :

hamit.bozarslan@ehess.fr  ccagla2002@yahoo.com   yvesdeloye@hotmail.com, duclert@ehess.fr, diana.gonzalez2@wanadoo.fr, ferhattaylan@gmail.com

 

Git initiative will publish January 1st 2012 a new list of academics, worldwide, who have signed in support of Academic Liberty and Freedom of Research in Turkey

1/ LETTER OF INFORMATION FOR THE GIT INITIATIVE, NOVEMBER 26, 2011


Dear Colleague,

 You are receiving this first letter of the International Work Group/Groupe international de travail (“GIT”): Academic Liberty and Freedom of Research in Turkey, after expressing your interest in joining our initiative or in creating a branch of GIT outside of France.

The inaugural declaration of the GIT initiative created on November 21, 2011, continues to circulate a great deal, and we have been receiving numerous messages from colleagues around the world. We see a great need for information as well as a strong engagement from everyone, conveying the urgency to act.

We are pleased to see that our initiative, started in France, is fulfilling its objective by operating on an international level. In order to facilitate this process, we have stated below some useful, practical information as to how you may wish to be involved:

 

Sign the inaugural declaration:

The inaugural declaration of the GIT initiative may be signed by all academics, researchers, translators, editors, who wish to attach their name to it. We will make public a new list of signatures, which includes everyone worldwide who has signed the inaugural declaration. We would like to caution graduate students or beginning researchers who conduct research in Turkey about the possible risks that they could take in exposing themselves publicly. Accessibility to their research terrain could subsequently be compromised. If these students and beginning researchers decide to restrain from signing, they may, nevertheless, be a member and participate in the activities of one of the GIT branches (their affiliation would stay confidential and would only be known by the fellow members).

 

Create a GIT branch in another country:

Another goal expressed in the inaugural declaration of the GIT initiative is a call for the creation of branches worldwide. Already, colleagues have already engaged themselves in creating branches in North America, Great Britain and Turkey. We will strive to put these people in contact with one another. Once a new branch is created, it can organize itself according to its own rhythm, organizational choices, means (Internet site, mailing lists, etc…).

 

Constitute international network of researchers:

It would be profitable for present teams of colleagues and for those who will soon join from different countries to reflect on common questions, which are central to the problems posed by the recent arrest of our colleagues in Turkey, for example: “To be a researcher in Turkey…and elsewhere”; “Studies on the conditions of research”; and “Research on judicial issues: justice and its principles.” The international site (www.gitinitiative.com) will provide access to all branches and will give an overview of activities of GIT international. A single mailing list will be created for all those who work as part of the initiative.

 

Belong to the French branch:

The first branch was installed in France (email address: info.gitfrance@gmail.com). It welcomes all researchers, academics, graduate students, etc… who would like to work within the framework of a laboratory of research examining research in a hostile and coercive environment. We will be organizing seminars in the very near future in Paris (but of course open to all members of other cities). The calendar of these seminars will be provided as soon as possible. The French website for GIT (www.gitfrance.fr) will be a tool used for work as well as a means to distribute public and scientific information. In other words, it is possible for colleagues who do not work in France to belong to the French branch, to contribute to studies conducted by the group in France and to receive information (through being on the mailing list). One can also belong to more than one branch.

 

“In Turkey…and elsewhere”

The action that we are conducting today is in defense of academic liberty and freedom of research in Turkey. We know that intellectual freedom is threatened in many other countries. Within the framework of GIT, eventual mobilization of other researchers for persecuted colleagues in Iran, Syria, Russia, China and elsewhere, is also one our goals. By setting up a network of academic research and knowledge, GIT initiative will serve as a means of surveillance of governments who deprive our colleagues of liberty and who govern by fear.

Hamit Bozarslan, Cengiz Cağla, Yves Deloye, Vincent Duclert, Diana Gonzalez, Ferhat Taylan

hamit.bozarslan@ehess.fr, ccagla2002@yahoo.com,  yvesdeloye@hotmail.com, duclert@ehess.fr, diana.gonzalez2@wanadoo.fr, ferhattaylan@gmail.com

www.gitinitiative.com

www.gitfrance.fr

info.gitfrance@gmail.com

Founders of GIT in France

The International Work Group (GIT): “Academic Liberty and Freedom of Research in Turkey” was created on the initiative of: Dr. Samim Akgönül, (Associate Professor of History and Political Science, Université de Strasbourg), Dr. Salih Akın, (Associate Professor of Linguistics, Université de Rouen), Dr. Marianne Baudin (Professor of Psychoanalysis, Université de Paris 13), Dr. Faruk Bilici (Professor of History, INALCO), Dr. Hamit Bozarslan (Professor of History and Sociology, Ecole des hautes études en sciences sociales/EHESS), Dr. Cengiz Cağla (Invited Professor of Political Science, EHESS), Dr. Renée Champion (Researcher, Arab Literature and Women Studies, CHSIM/EHESS), Dr. Etienne Copeaux (Historian, Turkish Studies), Dr. Philippe Corcuff (Associate Professor of Political Science, Sciences Po Lyon), Dr. Yves Déloye, Professor of Political Science, Sciences Po Bordeaux and Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, Secretary General of the Association française de science politique), Dr. Gilles Dorronsoro (Professor of Political Science, Université de Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne), Dr. Vincent Duclert (Associate Professor of History, EHESS), Dr. Paul Dumont (Professor of History, Université de Strasbourg), Dr. Ragıp Ege (Professor of Economics, Université de Strasbourg), Dr. Gulçin Erdinç Lelandais (PhD, Sociology, EHESS, Marie Curie Fellow, University of Warwick), Dr. Didier Francfort (Professor of History, Université de Nancy-II), Dr. Zeynep Gambetti (PhD, Political Philosophy, Université de Paris-VII), Dr. Eric Geoffroy (Associate Professor of Arab and Islamic Studies, Université de Strasbourg), Dr. Nilüfer Göle, (Professor of Sociology, EHESS), Dr. Diana Gonzalez (PhD, Sociology and Aesthetics, EHESS), Dr. Gérard Groc (Researcher, History, IREMAN/CNRS), Deniz Günce Demirhisar (PhD student, Sociology, EHESS and ATER, Université de Paris 13), Dr. Ali Kazancigil (Co-director of the revue Anatoli, Political Science), Iclal Incioglu (PhD student, Social Psychology, Université de Paris-VII), Dr. Lilian Mathieu (Director of Research, CNRS, ENS de Lyon, Sociology), Dr. Claire Mouradian (Director of Research CNRS, History), Dr. Christophe Prochasson (Professor of History, EHESS), Dr. Daniel Rottenberg, M.D. (PhD candidate, History, Université de Strasbourg), Emine Sarikartal (PhD student, translator and editor, Philosophy, Université de Paris-Nanterre), Ferhat Taylan (PhD student and translator, Philosophy, Université de Bordeaux), Dr. Lucette Valensi (Professor of History, EHESS), Dr. Murat Yıldızoğlu (Professor of  Economics, Université de Bordeaux).

 
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Publié par le décembre 9, 2011 dans Calls / Appels, News

 

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